About the Venue

The AIRO 2011 conference will take place in the two historical complexes of the Faculty of Economics, that we call Santa Chiara (C.da Santa Chiara 50) and San Faustino (Via San Faustino 74/b).
The following images provide an overview of the venues and of the Santa Chiara building, where most of the sessions will take place.

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About Brescia

Brescia, called the "lioness of Italy", is a dynamic, hardworking city whose inhabitants are famous for their tenacity and dedication to work.
The city is able to display a rich heritage of history and art, which spans from prehistoric times to the present. Tourists will be fascinated by the atmosphere created by its airy piazzas and picturesque lanes, its fountains and aristocratic residences, the intimacy of its cloisters and the art treasures waiting to be discovered in its churches and museums.
The etymology of "Brixia" (a name given by the "Ligurians" or the "Celts") seems to be derived from the Indo-European root "brg/berg/brig", which indicates an elevated place or fortress and is recognizable in many other cities set on hills, such as Bergamo or the city of Pergamum in Turkey.
Brescia's origins can be traced to the Bronze Age, but the city's importance began later when it was the capital of the "Cenomani Gauls" of Brixia. The "Cenomani" were defeated and absorbed by the "Romans" in 187 BC, but it was only in 49 BC, under "Giulio Cesare", that Brescia obtained full Roman citizenship.

This was followed by a long period of peace and splendor, in which Brescia became one of the major centers of Northern Italy. The city grew thanks to the strength of its economy based on agriculture, trade, marble quarries and iron mines. The "Capitolium Temple" was built in 73 AD by emperor "Vespasiano", after he won the civil war of 69 AD which brought destruction and sacking to these lands. As compensation for the damages felt, Brixia received a great impulse towards public buildings. Along with the adjacent roman theater, the temple has been hurt by a barbarian invasion in the V century. Nevertheless, the roman theater has been used for representation until the end of the XI century.

With the decline of the Roman Empire in 476 AD, Brescia suffered the scourge of barbarian invasions: Eruli, Ostrogoths and Byzantines. For two centuries, the city was the site of one of the most important Lombard duchies. Important civil and religious centers were constructed, such as the monastic complex of "San Salvatore" and "Santa Giulia". This was followed by the Frankish domination of "Charlemagne", which lasted until 888. Following the decline of "Charlemagne's empire", the city entered a dark period that left few traces.
Between the 12th and 13th Centuries, the "Age of the Communes", Brescia was often engaged in wars with nearby cities or bloodied by civil war. The communes interrupted fighting each other only to contrast a common enemy. The "Lombard League" was formed and it defeated "Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa" when he descended into Italy in 1176. These centuries were a period of great building activity: the "Duomo Vecchio" and "Broletto" date from this period. The 14th and 15th centuries were the "Age of the Signories"; the city came under the domination of powerful noble families such as the "Angioini", "Visconti" and "Malatesta".
In 1426, Brescia became a possession of the "Republic of Venice", and remained such until 1796. Under Venice's liberal rules, the city experienced a period of splendor and economic development. This is the period in which "Piazza della Loggia", and many churches and noble palaces were built, and the construction of the new fortified walls that made the city impregnable.

Towards the end of the 17th century, the city began to feel the effects of Venice's political decline. Brescia was an area of passage for foreign troops who sacked and pillaged; the city felt unprotected by Venice. "Napoleon" entered Brescia without bloodshed on 27 May 1796, arousing revolutionary enthusiasm. Brescia was included by "Napoleon" in the "Cisalpine Republic". With the collapse of the "Napoleonic empire", on 21 April 1799 the Austro-Russian troops entered Brescia; the general "Giuseppe Lechi" took the city for the French. In the following years, Brescia passed from the Italian Republic (1802) to the Italian Kingdom (1805). With "Napoleon" firmly out of sight, Austrian troops once again entered Brescia. Austrian domination lasted until 1859: in fact, in that period, the new concepts of liberty and self-determination of peoples spread by the "French Revolution" were in full ferment and Brescia was one of the centers with the most active revolutionary movements.
In 1849, the Brescian revolutionaries rebelled and resisted their Austrian masters for ten dramatic days, the so called "Dieci Giornate di Brescia". This was the episode that earned the city the nickname, “Lioness of Italy”. There followed weeks of mass executions.

On 12 August 1849, "Radetzky" promulgated an amnesty. In September 1851, and in January 1857, Brescia coldly welcomed emperor "Francesco Giuseppe". In 1859, Brescia was annexed to the Italian Kingdom and, from that day on, the city's history has been tied to that of united Italy. In fact, in June 1859, the Piedmont army, in which there were many Brescian volunteers, advanced on Lombardy. Garibaldi entered Brescia on 13, Vittorio Emanuele II on 17.

The "City Museum" is now located in the old longobard monastery of "Santa Giulia". This incredible museum is one of the most important buildings of the early middle ages in Northern Italy. Founded in 753 by the lombard "King Desiderio", the monastery was expanded several times until the "Renaissance". The complex contains the "Basilica of San Salvatore", of lombard origin, the "Church of Santa Giulia", the "Church of Santa Maria in Solario", which houses the "Treasure of Santa Giulia", and three Renaissance cloisters. Three Roman villas were discovered under the larger cloister, the "Domus dell’Ortaglia".
The monastery area was acquired by the municipality, which has turned the "Church of Santa Giulia" into the “Museo della Città” where one can follow the history of Brescia from the "Bronze Age" through to the "Renaissance". The museum regularly hosts large art shows.
The "Castle": it is located on the top of the "Colle Cidneo", in a scenic position overlooking the city. This was the settlement of the city's first inhabitants and later the Romans built an enormous temple on this site. It is one of the most important fortified buildings in Italy and was constructed in various stages beginning from the 12th century to the Venetian period. It is a true fortified citadel with towers, bulwarks, buildings, courtyards, drawbridges and cellars that can be visited, and two museums, the "Museo delle Armi Antiche" and the "Museo del Risorgimento". The gardens are also worth a visit and, in the summer, the Brescians transform them into a much loved meeting point.

"Piazza della Loggia": the piazza was designed in 1433, commissioned by the mayor, "Marco Foscari", to give the Brescian nobility a new place to gather. The piazza became the center of the city's political and economic life. It was not completed until a century later. Gradually, the "Loggia", "Monte Vecchio" and "Monte Nuovo di Pietà", with its porticoes and clock tower were constructed. The "Loggia" was the city's public building and it is the city hall today. Some of the greatest architects of the day contributed to the design, such as "Sansovino" and "Palladio". The ship's keel dome was destroyed by fire in 1575 and it was only in 1915 that it was decided to rebuild it following the original design. The rich sculptural decorations adorning the building are also worthy of note. The "Monte Vecchio di Pietà" is the oldest building on the piazza and it is an example of the "Venetian Renaissance" style. It is decorated with ancient Roman stones found during excavations for the construction of the piazza and arranged in the facade by the city government of the time. On the side opposite of the "Loggia", in the center of an elegant Venetian portico, you will find the "Clock Tower". This 14th-century tower houses a precious mechanical astronomical clock, plated in gold, portraying the sun and the signs of the zodiac. On the top of the tower, you can see two statues nicknamed “i macc de le ure” (the madmen of the hours), who strike the hours on the bell.

Brescia is cultivated and refined, with a high standard of living. The streets are always full of people who enjoy shopping, visiting cultural sites, attending the many events organized throughout the year, and tasting the delicious food & wine in typical eating house. Brescia is nowadays the second largest city in Lombardy after Milan, and it is the administrative capital of a Province with around 900,000 inhabitants. The province offers a diverse range of natural beauty, as well from the rolling hills of the wine growing region of Franciacorta, to the snow capped mountains of the lower Alps, from the stunning scenery of Lakes Garda, Iseo and Idro to the idyllic mountain villages spotted throughout the Brescian valleys. It is genuinely a region which has something to offer to every type of tourist whether they are in search of nature and relaxation, culture and gastronomy or sporting activities of every kind.
Starting from Brescia, both day-long and weekend-long trips to Verona (40 minutes by train) and Venice (2 hours by train) are also easy to organize.